Faculty nursing companies are in a novel place to affect, and work with, the entire household and wider system within the pursuits of kids and younger individuals enabling motion on social, psychological and well being selections and behaviours and the broader determinants of well being. Faculty nurses are nicely positioned to have an effect on well being behaviour change and assist the event of resilience when younger persons are growing independence, self-determination and autonomy.
Reducing health inequalities offers everybody the identical alternatives to stay a wholesome life, regardless of who they’re or the place they stay. Presently, individuals dwelling within the least disadvantaged areas of England stay round 20 years longer in good well being than individuals in probably the most disadvantaged areas. Focusing on these at higher danger of poor well being, understanding completely different well being behaviours and key danger and protecting components that have an effect on kids and their long-term well being will exhibit higher impression on well being outcomes.
Bettering well being outcomes and decreasing inequalities at particular person, household and group stage could make a constructive distinction to outcomes for youngsters, younger individuals and their households. Early intervention with evidence-based programmes can have vital impression for all kids, younger individuals and households – and particularly for these needing extra assist.
Understanding, and specializing in, key well being priorities is central to the supply of native public well being companies. Childhood obesity and oral well being are key well being priorities and are a marker for poor well being. Nonetheless, it’s recognised that the function and approaches may be utilized to different way of life points, for instance speech, language and communication, solar security, sexual well being, substance and alcohol misuse.
The examples used on this doc current alternatives for bringing collectively a strong method to enhancing outcomes throughout each well being and native authority-led companies for youngsters and younger individuals aged 0 to 19. It focuses on the impression of college nursing service on enhancing outcomes.
Childhood weight problems and bodily exercise
Childhood weight problems is a major well being inequality, with larger charges amongst kids in deprived areas and a few ethnic teams. Practically a 3rd of kids aged 2 to fifteen are chubby or overweight and youthful generations have gotten overweight at earlier ages and staying overweight for longer. Overweight persons are extra prone to undergo from bodily well being circumstances, for instance kind 2 diabetes, musculoskeletal circumstances or psychological well being circumstances equivalent to melancholy. Weight problems additionally will increase the chance of dying prematurely.
Youngsters dwelling with weight problems can discover that their weight impacts their prospects in life, vanity and underlying psychological well being, with poor well being behaviours persisting into maturity, resulting in lifelong negative effects on health. There’s a hyperlink between low vanity and weight problems, with overweight kids reporting feeling much less athletic, much less agile and fewer match than their peers who are a more ‘normal’ weight.
There’s additionally robust proof that common bodily exercise is related to numerous health benefits for children. The UK Chief Medical Officer recommends that each one kids and younger individuals aged 5 to 18 ought to interact in average to vigorous depth bodily exercise for a mean of 60 minutes per day throughout the week.
The financial prices of weight problems are nice. It was estimated that the NHS in the UK spent £6.1 billion on chubby and obesity-related ill-health in 2014 to 2015. The therapy of weight problems and diabetes costs more than the national spend on the police, fireplace service and judicial system mixed .
The impression falls hardest on kids from low revenue backgrounds, with weight problems charges highest for youngsters from probably the most disadvantaged areas. Youngsters aged 5 dwelling in probably the most disadvantaged areas are twice as prone to be overweight in comparison with these dwelling within the least disadvantaged areas. By age 11, the hole is evidenced to increase even further.
In 2016, the Authorities launched the Childhood Obesity: A Plan for Action. This was adopted in 2018 by Childhood Obesity: A Plan for Action: Chapter 2 which units out the ambition to halve childhood weight problems and considerably cut back the hole in weight problems between kids from probably the most and least disadvantaged areas by 2030. These paperwork additionally recognise that this can require sustained collaboration throughout the political divide, throughout society and throughout private and non-private sector organisations.
The Childhood Obesity Plan recognises the function that well being and social care professionals can play in supporting kids with their weight and pledges to offer them with the most recent instruments in order that they’ll assist kids, younger individuals and households with their weight.
Oral well being
Oral well being is a crucial facet of a kid’s general well being standing and of their faculty readiness. Poor oral well being impacts not simply on the person’s well being but in addition their wellbeing and that of their household. Youngsters who’ve toothache or who want therapy might have ache, infections and difficulties with consuming, speech, sleeping, low vanity, and difficulty socialising. Roughly 23% of 5-year-olds have tooth decay after they begin faculty. Youngsters who’ve toothache or who want therapy might need to be absent from faculty and fogeys might also need to take day off work to take their children to a dentist or hospital.
Tooth decay is basically preventable, but it stays a significant issue. Findings from the National Dental Epidemiology programme for England: Oral health survey of 5 year old children confirmed that in 2017 in England nearly 1 / 4 (23.3%) of 5 yr olds had skilled tooth decay, having on common 3 or 4 enamel affected. The overwhelming majority of tooth decay was untreated with a wide variation in the prevalence of tooth decay.
Consciousness of oral well being messages may be improved by offering kids, younger individuals and households with key oral well being proof. Such proof might embrace how breastfeeding is associated with a decreased risk of tooth decay, how brushing enamel no less than twice a day utilizing a fluoride toothpaste can cut back incidence of cavities, and the way registering with a dentist and having common critiques will help to take care of good oral well being. Recommendation may also encompass limiting the variety of sugary drinks and snacks, consuming a nutritious diet that displays the Eatwell guide and decreasing tobacco and alcohol use and referring to give up smoking assist.
The areas with poorer dental well being are usually within the north and within the extra disadvantaged native authority areas. The latest knowledge for five yr olds exhibits that 43% of variation may be defined by deprivation, with 34% of 5-year-olds in probably the most disadvantaged quartile affected, in contrast with 14% in probably the most prosperous. Weak teams of kids and younger individuals, equivalent to younger carers and people within the felony justice system, might expertise extra danger of poor oral well being. Consumption of free sugars is a danger issue each for dental caries and weight problems. Tooth decay is attributable to elevated frequency of consumption of sugar.
There’s a clear affiliation between kids’s BMI and the prevalence and severity of caries, even when different potential influences equivalent to deprivation are taken under consideration. Youngsters who’re chubby and really chubby usually tend to have caries than these of wholesome weight.
For youngsters and younger individuals, there are numerous various factors concerned in staying wholesome, together with private selections and behaviours (for instance smoking, oral well being, diet, bodily exercise, and sexual exercise). A various vary of social, financial and environmental components have an effect on well being, as do social networks and the media. The impression of those components varies at completely different instances in a baby or younger individual’s life; all have the power to affect well being and wellbeing.
Well being Literacy
Faculty nurses have a task in supporting younger individuals to grow to be well being literate, signposting them to sources of recommendation for enhancing and sustaining their bodily and psychological well being. Well being literacy performs an important function within the lives of younger people who find themselves at a stage the place they’re growing their independence and turning into much less reliant on dad and mom and carers. Serving to them to construct data about their well being and wellbeing supplies them with abilities for all times. Well being literacy additionally empowers them to make selections about their very own well being, and helps them to access and use health services appropriately.
The function of college nurses
Faculty nurses and their groups are in a novel place to construct trusting and enduring skilled relationships with kids and younger individuals all through their time in schooling, enabling them to grow to be assured and wholesome adults. It’s important that younger individuals in secondary schooling or school can have entry to protected and confidential companies every time they want well being assist and recommendation.
Working with dad and mom and households and accomplice businesses, faculty nurses determine probably the most applicable stage of assist and intervention for particular person and inhabitants wants. Though faculty nurses present management, they might want to work with a spread of companions to ship a complete programme of evidence-based interventions.
Faculty nurses and their groups present an important interface between kids, younger individuals, households, communities and colleges. They’ve outlined abilities to assist holistic evaluation of the well being and wellbeing wants of kids and younger individuals. They supply well being promotion, prevention and early intervention approaches to assist particular person, group and inhabitants well being wants.
By utilizing their abilities inside the wider well being and care system, and drawing on trusted relationships with different companions, faculty nurses will help to assist and allow place-based and whole-school motion to deal with well being inequalities. Their involvement in delivering evidence-based interventions together with HPV and different immunisation programmes within the teenage years, additionally supplies opportunities for further health promotion.
Faculty nurses ship care in probably the most applicable setting for the local people, utilizing the ideas of the You’re Welcome High quality Standards. This consists of utilizing expertise to enhance entry and assist for youngsters, younger individuals and households.
Wholesome Youngster Programme
The Wholesome Youngster Programme affords each household a programme of screening exams, immunisations, developmental critiques, info and steerage to assist parenting and wholesome selections – all companies that kids and households have to obtain if they’re to realize their optimum well being and wellbeing.
The Wholesome Youngster Programme is common in attain. It units out a spread of public well being assist in native locations to construct wholesome communities and to cut back inequalities. It additionally features a schedule of interventions, which vary from companies for all via additional assist to intensive assist.
The Wholesome Youngster Programme is personalised in response. All companies and interventions should be personalised to answer households’ wants throughout time. For a lot of households this can be met by the common provide. Extra focused, intensive or specialised assist and evidence-based interventions needs to be offered early to fulfill ‘predicted, assessed and expressed want’ and enhance outcomes.
Bettering well being and wellbeing
The excessive impression areas will deal with interventions on the following ranges and can use a place-based method:
- particular person and household
The place-based method affords alternatives to assist meet the challenges public well being and the well being and social care system face. This impacts on the entire group and goals to deal with points that exist on the group stage, equivalent to poor housing, social isolation, poor/fragmented companies, or duplication or gaps in service provision. Faculty nurses, as leaders in public well being and the Wholesome Youngster Programme (5 to 19), are nicely positioned to assist households and communities to interact on this method. They’re important to the management and supply of built-in companies for people, communities and inhabitants to offer RightCare that maximises place-based systems of care.
Particular person and household
Wholesome way of life recommendation is obtainable by faculty nurses in order that kids, younger individuals and households can perceive the significance of fine well being behaviours and wholesome life equivalent to wholesome consuming, bodily exercise and good oral well being. Faculty nurses undertake particular person evaluation of want, care planning as a joint course of with the person and finishing onward referral or signposting to weight administration and oral well being companies the place applicable.
Faculty nurses can work carefully with kids and younger individuals aged 5 to 19, to allow them to develop knowledgeable decision-making abilities about their well being and wellbeing. They’ll use alternatives for well being promotion, Making Every Contact Count to assist behaviour change and use strengths-based, motivational approaches to empower people to make more healthy way of life selections.
Faculty nurses can assist kids in studying about wholesome consuming and bodily exercise by following the Our Healthy Year useful resource. These assets assist faculty workers create a wholesome faculty tradition. They clarify measuring day to pupils, making certain kids study wholesome life after they’ve been weighed and measured, as a part of the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP).
Faculty nurses have an essential function in enabling kids, younger individuals and households to make constructive selections about their well being. They’ll utilise opportunistic moments to debate wholesome weight, signposting to native companies or referring to weight administration programmes the place required.
Faculty nurses and their groups present alternatives for fogeys, kids and younger individuals to debate points or issues. In addition they present recommendation on behaviours, attitudes and household practices round meals, bodily exercise and oral well being, for instance controlling meals portion measurement, limiting snacking on meals which can be excessive in fats and sugar, and inspiring an lively way of life.
Faculty nurses can assist the supply of native weight administration companies and provide a constant method to the administration of way of life issues associated to NCMP outcomes. They’ll provide particular person assist to oldsters and households to handle way of life issues and alter behaviours. Faculty nursing groups are in a novel place to assist enhance parental recognition of their little one’s weight standing. Bettering parental acceptance of the end result might encourage entry to, and uptake of, companies.
As well as, faculty nurses can assist colleges to fulfill statutory duties to advertise kids’s well being and well-being, serving to kids to grasp how to keep themselves healthy. They’ll promote the usage of the Change4Life Food Scanner App, an interactive useful resource to encourage kids and fogeys to make wholesome meals selections by decreasing the quantity of sugar, fats and salt within the meals they purchase. Wholesome weight upkeep can be achieved via encouraging wholesome consuming and wholesome diet in keeping with guidelines, and selling the recommended levels of physical activity.
Faculty nurses are nicely positioned to advocate for community centred approaches to improving health and wellbeing. Working with native authorities, parks and leisure companies, faculty nursing groups can provide perception into group well being and wellbeing must affect future planning and developments of leisure actions. Faculty nursing groups can have an effect on the group by being conscious of native companies and by being concerned in place-based actions, making communities more healthy for youngsters and households.
Faculty nursing groups can work instantly with colleges to coach workers on weight administration issues and to assist them in growing an entire faculty method to well being and wellbeing.
Faculty nurses have invaluable data of native companies. They develop partnerships with different disciplines and businesses to assist approaches and interventions that may assist people to make more healthy selections about their way of life. This consists of supporting supply of the brand new relationships, sex and health education (RSHE) curriculum which turned statutory for all colleges in September 2020. RSHE consists of key facets of wholesome life for instance, wholesome consuming, bodily exercise and oral well being. Making certain all pupils are conscious of and know how one can entry native companies is a requirement of the brand new steerage.
Faculty nurses can work with companions to ship focused drop-ins in colleges, faculties and group settings to verify kids and younger individuals have entry to confidential well being info and assist from somebody they belief. Entry for younger individuals is enabled via the usage of expertise and social media to ship well being messages, promote companies and provide accessible, confidential recommendation that’s acceptable to the younger individuals utilizing them. This may be, for instance, texting a well being recommendation service, or utilizing e mail as a method of first contacting faculty nursing companies.
Faculty nurses can construct group capability to allow native households to advertise wholesome consuming and bodily exercise via community-led initiatives. Examples embrace: working with communities to facilitate lively life by way of strategies equivalent to StreetPlay and outside actions, or selling wholesome meals and enhancing cooking strategies for households on low revenue (for instance, by way of a fruit and vegetable co-operative).
The college nursing workforce are additionally well-placed to encourage whole school approaches to selling wholesome consuming and bodily exercise amongst faculty aged kids by:
Faculty nurses have an essential function in growing health literacy in kids, younger individuals and households by supporting them to develop their data of self-care, encouraging wholesome life and decreasing sedentary behaviours. This consists of how one can receive applicable info and assist for well being issues and growing understanding and confidence to entry probably the most applicable well being companies.
Faculty nurses lead the Wholesome Youngster Programme (5 to 19) and supply management at a strategic stage to contribute to growth and enchancment of insurance policies, pathways and methods to assist supply of top quality, evidence-based, constant care for youngsters, younger individuals and households for enhancing life.
Faculty nurses can undertake inhabitants well being wants assessments and perceive the strengths and challenges to well being and wellbeing of the inhabitants, together with the identification of the extra wants of weak teams equivalent to homeless households, kids in care, travellers, refugees and asylum seekers. Faculty nurses elevate consciousness of wants recognized and assist the event of common or focused work in partnership with different skilled disciplines and businesses, with a view to enhance life and assist people to undertake more healthy behaviours.
Faculty nurses and their groups work with kids, younger individuals and households to determine approaches to enhancing well being and wellbeing which can be related to them of their every day lives. Faculty nurses recognise that it’s a joint duty to assist communities to enhance their well being and wellbeing; as such, they work carefully with different professionals to deal with native points.
Tackling weight problems is advanced and requires co-ordinated motion and integration throughout a number of sectors, together with well being, social care, planning, housing, transport and companies. Faculty nurse groups kind a part of the entire system method, tackling weight problems by supporting kids and their households to make more healthy selections and subsequently cut back the chance of preventable ill-health.
Faculty nurses can assist the Public Well being England (PHE) national dental epidemiology programme dental survey of 5 year olds. They will help dad and mom and households to grasp the aim and significance of the data and the way it may be used to develop preventative companies and to enhance way of life behaviours.
Faculty nurses can nurture constructive relationships between well being suppliers, schooling suppliers, group and voluntary organisations to make sure all are aware of nationwide and native wants. They’ll additionally exhibit improved public well being outcomes.
Utilizing proof to assist supply
A spot-based or community-centred method goals to develop native options that draw on all of the belongings and assets of an space, integrating companies and constructing resilience in communities so that folks can take management of their well being and wellbeing. Such an method can have extra affect on the components that underpin good well being.
The All Our Health framework brings collectively assets and proof that can assist to assist evidence-based follow and repair supply, Making Every Contact Count and constructing on the specialist public well being abilities of college nurses.
Most well being and care professionals deal with interventions that are usually delivered on a person foundation, nevertheless well being guests and college nurses deal with people, households and community-oriented approaches. It’s crucial that each one professionals contemplate the significance of inhabitants well being as an method that goals to enhance bodily and psychological well being outcomes, whereas selling wellbeing and decreasing well being inequalities throughout a complete inhabitants.
Social prescribing enhances such approaches, enabling public well being nurses and different well being and care professionals to refer individuals to a spread of native, non-clinical companies. Faculty nurses recognise that kids and younger individuals’s well being is decided primarily by a spread of social, financial and environmental components. Social prescribing seeks to deal with people wants in a holistic method, permitting people to take higher management of their very own well being.
Measures of success or consequence
Prime quality knowledge, evaluation instruments and assets can be found for all public well being professionals to determine the well being wants of the native inhabitants. This contributes to the decision-making course of for the commissioning of companies and future plans to enhance individuals’s well being and cut back inequalities of their space. Consequence measures might embrace Public Health Outcomes Framework and NHS Outcomes Framework, child and maternal health profile indicators , measures of entry, and repair expertise.
Faculty nurses and wider stakeholders have to exhibit impression and supply proof of improved outcomes. This may be achieved through the use of the native measures.
- proof of the usage of up-to-date, evidence-based approaches to dental well being promotion, wholesome weight upkeep and bodily exercise
- proof of native multi-agency pathways setting out good follow on evaluation, identification and assist for youngsters and younger individuals aged 5 to 19 and their households
- promotion of the NCMP to all colleges and households
- promotion of wholesome weight for instance, Change4Life, Let’s talk about weight tool for children and families
- promotion of PHE’s on-line assets for households and dental health on NHS choices and Change4Life
- entry to dentistry and common check-ups
- entry to toothbrushes and fluoride toothpaste
- proof of implementation, together with adherence to highschool insurance policies in locations that promote wholesome meals and drinks, to assist dental well being, wholesome consuming and bodily exercise
- elevated numbers of kids and households who decide in to the nationwide dental epidemiology survey at age 5 years and to NCMP at age 4 to five years and age 10 to 11 years
- Everyday Interactions Impact Pathway for child oral health exhibits how public well being professionals, together with faculty nurses, can exhibit the impression of their actions on oral well being
- the Royal Society of Public Well being Everyday Interactions Impact Pathway for childhood obesity exhibits how public well being professionals, together with faculty nurses, can exhibit the impression of their actions on childhood weight problems
- indicators out there within the Public Health Outcomes Framework and Child Health Profiles
- proportion of kids aged 4 to five years categorized as chubby or overweight
- proportion of kids aged 10 to 11 years categorized as chubby or overweight
- smoking prevalence at age 15 – present people who smoke
- smoking prevalence at age 15 – common people who smoke
- smoking prevalence at age 15 – occasional people who smoke
- proportion of inhabitants assembly the beneficial ‘5-a-day’ at age 15
- prevalence of tooth decay in 5 yr olds
- elevated uptake of bodily exercise
Different measures may be developed regionally and will embrace native initiatives and assist for dental well being promotion and decreasing weight problems, or partnership approaches to tackling weight problems and growing bodily exercise.
Reference to different areas
The excessive impression space paperwork have been developed to assist supply of the Wholesome Youngster Programme and 5 to 19 agenda. They spotlight the hyperlink with numerous different interconnecting coverage areas, for instance childhood obesity, troubled families, mental health, drugs, immunisation, and social mobility.
The significance of efficient outcomes depends on robust working relationships between all companions in well being (main and secondary), native authorities together with schooling companies, and voluntary sector companies.
Greatest Begin in Life has been recognized as a precedence as a part of PHE’s 5-year Strategy which runs from 2020 to 2025. Greatest begin is a precedence for presidency and as such is included within the Prevention Green Paper (Advancing our Well being: prevention within the 2020s).
Bettering companies for youngsters and younger individuals is a part of the NHS Long Term Plan. The Child Digital Strategy and Maternity Programme is presently growing and implementing infrastructure to enhance entry and timeliness of knowledge with the intention to know the place each little one is and the way nicely they’re. This consists of the event and implementation of a Digital Mother or father Youngster Well being Report. This programme helps the ambitions and modernisation of the Healthy Child Programme.
Approaches to enhancing outcomes via collaborative working embrace:
- utilizing Public Well being Outcomes Framework indicators reported and benchmarked by PHE
- applicable info sharing agreements in place throughout all businesses
- built-in commissioning of companies to make sure the well being and wellbeing wants of kids are met
- built-in and cohesive engagement with colleges, key companions and stakeholders to assist planning, supply, monitoring and evaluation
- info sharing from Joint Strategic Wants Evaluation (JSNA), together with well being knowledge, details about households, communities and the standard of native companies and outcomes from built-in critiques; this will likely assist to determine and reply to agreed joint priorities
- knowledge suggestions to tell JSNA on weight problems, diet and train in reception-aged and 12 months 6 kids
- growth of partnerships round wholesome weight methods, with clear pathways for assist for fogeys and younger individuals in danger from weight problems
- knowledge suggestions from nationwide dental epidemiology programme for England
- working with colleges to assist built-in planning, supply, and monitoring
- demonstrating worth for cash and return on funding, together with Improving the oral health of children: cost-effective commissioning oral health return of investment tool
- improved accessibility for weak teams
- built-in IT techniques and data sharing throughout businesses
- growth and use of built-in pathways to incorporate prevention and early intervention
- systematic assortment of person expertise for instance, NHS Friends and Family Test and engagement with kids and younger individuals to design companies which can be younger individuals pleasant and may inform motion
- identification of danger components and indicators for weight problems and oral well being
- elevated use of evidence-based interventions to enhance wholesome consuming and bodily exercise
- elevated use of evidence-based intervention to enhance dental well being, for instance school-based tooth brushing and fluoride varnish programmes
- improved partnerships, for instance between colleges, well being guests, GPs, and dental companies, plus kids, younger individuals and households
- constant info for fogeys and carers on dental well being promotion, weight problems, diet and exercise
- guarantee native processes are in place to allow easy switch of data and continuity of programmes throughout transition to highschool
- elevated dental well being provision in all areas
Skilled or partnership mobilisation
- multi-agency coaching on danger components and root causes of weight problems, poor dental well being and dental decay
- multi-agency coaching for wholesome weight, together with steerage on diet and exercise
- efficient supply of common prevention and early intervention programmes
- improved understanding of knowledge inside the Joint Strategic Wants Evaluation and on the native Well being and Wellbeing Board to raised assist built-in working of 0 to 19 well being visiting and college nursing companies, with present native authority preparations, to offer a holistic and improved companies for youngsters, younger individuals, dad and mom and households
- identification of abilities and competencies to tell built-in working and talent combine
- familiarity with the NCMP and the National Dental Epidemiology Programme
- nearer hyperlinks with early years settings, colleges, dental groups, well being guests and GPs
Prevention pays: Our Children Deserve Better, Division of Well being and Social Care (DHSC), 2013
Childhood obesity: A plan for action, DHSC, Prime Minister’s Workplace, 10 Downing Avenue, HM Treasury and Cupboard Workplace, 2016
Digital Child Health, NHS Digital, 2020
Drug Strategy, House Workplace, 2017
Improving social mobility through education, Division for Training (DfE), 2017
Making Every Child Count, PHE, 2020
Our Healthy Year, PHE
Quality criteria for young people friendly health services, You’re Welcome, Division of Well being, 2011
About the All Our Health programme, PHE, 2020
A public health approach to promoting young people’s resilience, Affiliation for Younger Individuals’s Well being, 2016
Effects of obesity on perception of ability and perception of body image Peralta and others, Journal of Human Sport and Train, 2016
Place-based systems of care: A way forward for the NHS in England, Ham, C., Alderwick, NHS England, 2015
Healthy Child Programme, e-Studying for Healthcare
Prevention Green Paper, DHSC, 2019
Public Health Outcomes Framework 2013 to 2016, DHSC, 2015
Health visiting and school nursing programmes: Supporting implementation of the new service model: Health visiting and school nursing partnership: Pathways for supporting health visiting and school nurse interface and improved partnership working, DHSC, 2014
Maximising the school nursing team contribution to the public health of school aged children: Guidance to support the commissioning of public health provision to school aged children 5 to 19, DHSC, 2014
NHS England: Social Prescribing, NHS England, 2020
NHS Long Term Plan, NHS England, 2020
Childhood obesity All Our Health interactive townscape, e-Studying for Healthcare
School fruit and veg scheme, DHSC, 2010
Change4Life 2018 (dental assets on the Faculty Zone), PHE
Child dental health: applying All Our Health, PHE, 2019
Dental Public Health Intelligence Programme,
The Nationwide Wellness and Public Well being Community
Health matters: Child dental health, PHE, 2017
Behaviour change: General approaches NICE public well being guideline [PH6], 2007
Behaviour change: Individual approaches, NICE public well being guideline [PH49], 2014
Maternal and child nutrition, NICE public well being guideline [PH11], 2008
Oral health: Local authorities and partners,, NICE public well being guideline [PH55], 2014
Oral health promotion: General dental practice, NICE public well being guideline [PH30], 2015
Promoting physical activity for children and young people, NICE public well being guideline [PH17], 2009
Smoking: Preventing the uptake in children and young people, NICE public well being guideline [PH14], 2008
Weight management lifestyle services for overweight or obese children and young people, NICE public well being guideline [PH47], 2013