There are two primary kinds of medicine for type 2 diabetes: capsules and insulin. Each assist your blood sugar keep near regular. That’s necessary, as a result of if it is excessive, it might result in issues like nerve damage, vision issues, and amputation.
Which kind of drugs is best for you? There are issues you must know earlier than you discuss it over together with your physician.
Drugs for Diabetes
In the event you’ve simply came upon you’ve type 2 diabetes, your physician will in all probability advocate that you just take capsules to handle your blood sugar. There are a number of differing kinds. They don’t exchange insulin. However they can assist your physique:
- Make extra insulin
- Use it extra successfully
- Decrease your blood sugar
Your physician might prescribe a number of of the next:
Metformin(Glucophage) is normally the primary capsule that docs prescribe for kind 2 diabetes. (You may take it as a liquid, too.) Metformin lowers the quantity of blood sugar that your liver makes and helps your physique use insulin extra successfully. You may use different diabetes drugs together with it. It might additionally assist you lose slightly little bit of weight.
Chances are you’ll not have the ability to take metformin in case you have liver disease, kidney issues, or heart failure, or when you drink closely. It might probably trigger low blood sugar and a situation referred to as lactic acidosis, which may result in stomach problems, weak spot and, in some instances, kidney failure or a heart attack.
Sulfonylureas are a kind of drugs that helps your physique make extra insulin. Examples embody:
They will trigger weight gain and low blood sugar.
Meglitinides assist your pancreas launch extra insulin. They normally do it sooner than sulfonylureas, however they do not work as lengthy. Examples embody repaglinide (Prandin) and nateglinide (Starlix). Uncomfortable side effects of meglitinides embody low blood sugar and weight acquire.
Thiazolidinediones make your physique’s tissues extra delicate to insulin. That helps your physique use it extra successfully. Examples of one of these drugs embody rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (Actos). They’re normally solely prescribed if different remedies do not work. That is as a result of their negative effects may be extreme, together with heart failure and anemia.
Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors decrease blood sugar ranges barely, however not as a lot as many different diabetes medication. Drugs that fall into this class embody:
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors hold your kidneys from absorbing glucose. As a substitute, it goes into your urine. That lowers your blood sugar.
SGLT2 drugs might decrease your odds of coronary heart assault and stroke. They might additionally assist sluggish the development of kidney disease. Uncomfortable side effects embody yeast or urinary tract infections, low blood pressure, and the next probability of one thing referred to as diabetic ketoacidosis. That is when your physique creates excessive ranges of blood acids referred to as ketones.
GLP-1 Receptor Agonists (your physician might name them incretin mimetics) are medicines that assist your physique make extra insulin after you eat. That is helps hold your blood sugar down after a meal. Semaglutide (Ozempic) is the one type of this drugs that is available in capsule kind. The others are injectable. They’re:
Uncomfortable side effects can embody:
- Weight reduction
- Weak spot
Insulin for Diabetes
If capsules aren’t sufficient to get your blood sugar underneath management, your physician might advocate insulin. You’re taking insulin as a shot. You may’t take it like a capsule as a result of regular digestion would destroy it.
There are a number of differing kinds, and so they all work in numerous methods. Your physician might advocate you employ a couple of.
Lengthy-acting insulin reaches your bloodstream a number of hours after you inject it. It lowers your blood sugar over a 24-hour interval. When you’ve got kind 2 diabetes, your physician is more than likely to have you ever take long-acting insulin at night time.
Intermediate-acting insulin additionally begins to work a number of hours after you inject it, however it solely works for about 12 to 18 hours.
Common or “short-acting” insulin reaches your bloodstream about half an hour after you inject it. It does its job for 3 to six hours.
Fast-acting insulin begins to work virtually instantly after you inject it. It solely works for two to 4 hours.
Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is a facet impact of all types of insulin. Medical doctors used to solely prescribe insulin as a final resort for individuals with kind 2 diabetes. Now, they usually do it sooner as a result of it lowers blood sugar.
Questions for My Physician
Which kind of therapy is greatest for you must at all times be a joint resolution between you and your diabetes care crew. Whichever they advocate, make sure you ask concerning the professionals and cons of every medicine, together with:
- What are negative effects I ought to anticipate with every possibility?
- How a lot do they value?
- How do I take advantage of them?
- The place ought to I retailer them?
Additionally, ensure you perceive tips on how to inform in case your blood sugar is just too low, and what to do whether it is.