Restoring cervical lesions has been a problem for dentists. The incidence of those lesions is understood to extend with age. Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is the selection of restorative supplies used to deal with cervical lesions. They’ve superior retention resulting from chemical adhesion to the tooth construction, even in sclerotic dentin, and doesn’t require removing of enamel margins for beveling as required in composites. Different traits embrace wonderful biocompatibility, fluoride-releasing property, decrease shrinkage, decreased microleakage, and acceptable aesthetics.1
Intrinsic or extrinsic discoloration of a fabric are two essential causes among the many many causes for repeating the restoration.2 Causes for intrinsic discoloration embrace alterations within the restorative materials’s chemical construction resulting from bodily and chemical circumstances. Extrinsic discoloration is principally as a result of absorption and adsorption of exogenous stains. Research have proven that weight-reduction plan is the main trigger for the event of extrinsic stains.3
Consumption of drinks like tea is a every day ritual for many individuals. On account of elevated well being consciousness, there’s a change within the client preferences from standard tea to Inexperienced tea (GT) and Tulsi tea (TT). They’ve added well being advantages and are loaded with antioxidants and vitamins that enhance immunity, scale back stress, allow fats loss, decrease ldl cholesterol, and assist in glycemic management amongst individuals with diabetes.4,5 Areca tea (AT) is one other different that has many advantages like “anti-ulcer,” “anti-aging,” “hypo-lipidemic,” “anti-diabetic,” together with enhanced “digestion” and “metabolism”.6 Aside from their helpful results, tea preparations have substantial quantities of gallic acid, tannins, theaflavins, thearubigins, and theabrownins7,8 which may trigger staining of enamel and restorative supplies.
Newer GICs (GC Fuji IX GP Further and Ketac Common Glass Ionomer Restorative have been launched available in the market with elevated fillers and can be found in numerous shades. They provide superior mechanical and aesthetic properties and are indicated within the restoration of cervical lesions.
Literature exhibits that numerous drinks can alter the bodily and aesthetic properties of GICs, undermining the standard of restorations that result in their floor degradation and put on. Fuji IX confirmed the least coloration change in comparison with Fuji II LC, Dyract additional, and Filtek Z250.9 Nonetheless, the discoloration potential of the above talked about drinks on these restorative supplies has not been a lot evaluated.
With this background, we aimed to match the colour stability of the newer GICs when uncovered to totally different tea preparations utilizing spectrophotometric evaluation.
Null speculation: The newer GICs would haven’t any distinction within the coloration stability when uncovered to totally different tea preparations.
Supplies and Strategies
Commercially accessible standard GICs GC Fuji IX GP EXTRA (GC Company, Tokyo, Japan) and Ketac Common Glass Ionomer Restorative (3M Deutschland GmbH, Neuss, Germany) had been chosen for this examine.
Eighty disc-shaped samples of GC Fuji IX (n=40) and Ketac Common (n=40) had been ready utilizing a mildew (diameter: 8mm; thickness: 2 mm).10 Cements had been manipulated as per the producers’ tips and loaded into the mildew, which was compressed between two glass plates lined by mylar strips to take away the surplus and procure easy and flat surfaces. As soon as the supplies had been set, the discs had been faraway from the mildew.10,11 All of the samples had been rehydrated by storing in distilled water for someday at room temperature, earlier than the baseline coloration evaluation.10
We randomly divided the samples of each the restorative supplies into 4 subgroups (10 every) for immersing within the check options. They’re distilled water (management), “Inexperienced tea” (Lipton, Hindustan Unilever Ltd, India), “Tulsi tea” (Tulsi Authentic, Natural India Pvt Ltd, India), and “Areca tea” (Mystic aromatics, India).
Preparation of the Check Options
The check options had been ready freshly each day utilizing two tea luggage (2 gm every) in 300 mL of boiling water dipped for 3 minutes.2 The tea luggage had been eliminated and the check answer was cooled for five minutes.
Every set (n=10) was immersed within the respective check answer in a container for quarter-hour/day for 60 days. After quarter-hour, the samples had been saved in distilled water.
Colour Estimation Utilizing Spectrophotometric Evaluation
The colour estimation was accomplished utilizing a “Digital reflectance spectrophotometer (X-rite i1PRO Spectrophotometer and Profile maker Professional 5.0.10 software program)” as described beforehand.12 Readings had been obtained in triplicates, and the typical worth was obtained.13 The colour evaluation was calculated utilizing the next equation:14
All the analysis was done using MedCalc version 14. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Normality was tested using the Shapiro Wilk test. Comparison of the mean ΔE values between baseline and 60 days was done using Wilcoxon Signed rank test. The mean difference in ΔE (baseline – 60 days) was compared between the two restorative materials using the Mann–Whitney U-test. The mean difference in ΔE (baseline – 60 days) was compared using Kruskal Wallis ANOVA with post hoc Conover test.
The data showed non-normal distribution hence non-parametric tests were used to compare ΔE values. The mean ΔE at 60 days was significantly higher than baseline in all the test solutions for both the GC Fuji IX and Ketac Universal (Table 1). The imply distinction (Baseline – 60days) in ΔE worth was considerably larger in GC Fuji IX than Ketac Common in GT, AT, and management options (P<0.001, 0.018, and <0.001), respectively. Among the many GC Fuji IX samples, GT and AT stained greater than TT and management options. Samples of Ketac Common confirmed a considerably larger imply distinction in ΔE values when immersed in AT, adopted by GT, TT, and management (Figure 1) (Table 2).
Desk 1 Comparability of Imply ΔE Between Baseline and 60 Days Regarding Numerous Check Options and Restorative Supplies
Determine 1 Consultant pictures of staining on GC Fuji IX GP EXTRA and Ketac Common after 60 days of publicity to numerous tea preparations.
Desk 2 Comparability of Imply Distinction of ΔE Among the many 4 Check Options and Two Restorative Supplies
Discoloration of restorations in esthetic areas of the mouth is likely one of the widespread causes for changing the restoration. Our examine evaluated two new GICs which declare to supply superior aesthetics and bodily properties. The long-term scientific efficiency and coloration stability of each these merchandise are but to be researched.
Our examine confirmed that each the restorative supplies stained considerably after the immersion routine. It may be attributed to the softening and dissolution of the matrix surrounding the glass particles and will consequence from the siliceous hydrogel layer’s dissolution.15 This might lead to a tough floor that has elevated floor space for the adsorption of pigments, resulting in staining.16 General most coloration change was seen in GIC Fuji IX GP Further in comparison with Ketac Common Glass Ionomer restorative. Research have reported that benzoic acid within the co-polymeric acid of Ketac Common might produce a mechanical interlocking impact upon hardening, making it much less hydrolytic and extra coloration secure.17 Benzoic acid-containing cements have been reported to have good chemical resistance within the oral setting.17 Colour modifications also can happen as a result of leaching out of fluoride ions from the calcium fluorosilicate glass as a result of ionic change between the fabric and the environmental answer, which impacts its floor and structural integrity.18,19 Subsequently, better discoloration of GIC Fuji IX GP Further might additionally happen resulting from its larger fluoride launch potential than Ketac Common.20
AT confirmed most staining in each the GICs, adopted by GT, TT, and distilled water as a result of excessive tannin content material among the many check options. Tannins are water-soluble polyphenols that impart tea its darker coloration and bitter style. They’ve robust antioxidant properties which have numerous helpful results on well being. Nonetheless, certainly one of their drawbacks is that they will result in brownish discoloration of enamel and restorations when consumed over a chronic interval.21 Research have proven that Areca nut’s tannin content material is as much as 18%,22,23 3% to 13% in GT,24 and lowest focus in TT (0.9–2%).25 Earlier research evaluated composite restoration’s coloration stability after publicity to few natural well being drinks like GT, AT, TT. All of the tea preparations had scientific perceptible staining potential, and AT confirmed the very best staining potential, much like outcomes of the current examine.12
Utility of Fuji Coat LC has been really useful by the producer to enhance coloration stability of Fuji IX GP Further restorations. Nonetheless, Fuji IX coat LC doesn’t include Fuji IX GP Further’s normal packaging, and clinicians typically don’t go for the extra buy of such varnishes. As per the producer’s instruction, the applying of Fuji coat LC is on the clinician’s discretion. Additionally, Ketac Common doesn’t include an identical preparation. The producer claims this to be certainly one of Ketac Common’s benefits, whereby one step of varnish software is eradicated. Therefore to standardize the experiment, Fuji coat LC was not used over the specimens of Fuji IX GP Further. Nonetheless, we ensured a great floor end of the restorations utilizing a mylar strip which was proven to be the smoothest.23 Using mylar strip can be really useful by the producer.
The ΔE values between 0 to 2 signify imperceptible coloration modifications, 2 to three signify simply perceptible coloration modifications on shut statement.26 Values ≥3.3 are noticeable with the bare eye and never acceptable clinically.27 In our examine, GIC Fuji IX GP Further, and Ketac Common confirmed clinically perceptible modifications in all of the check options after 60 days of immersion. Nonetheless, in distilled water least coloration change was seen for each supplies however clinically noticeable just for GIC Fuji IX GP Further. Earlier research have reported coloration modifications with distilled water.13,28–30
Although our examine outcomes are troublesome to extrapolate to in-vivo circumstances resulting from different elements within the oral setting, this examine highlights the colour stability of the GICs when uncovered to tea preparations. Future research ought to discover the function of filler dimension, form, and amount on the colour stability of those restorative supplies.
All dental restorative supplies have proven deterioration with time within the oral setting. Throughout the examine’s limitations, we will conclude that each the GICs exhibited staining over time on publicity to all of the check options.
- Ketac Common Glass Ionomer Restorative exhibited decrease staining potential than GIC Fuji IX GP Further for GT and AT.
- AT confirmed the very best discoloration potential in each the examined GICs.
Clinicians ought to contemplate the susceptibility of those restorative supplies to stains as a result of sufferers’ dietary habits, whereas planning the restorations.
The authors reported no conflicts of curiosity for this work.
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